Read on to learn about job types and required skills for different industry in Japan. The many and various jobs that exist in the society have been categorized into nine occupation groups. Learn in-depth about the different opportunities in Japan.
Clerical and Administration: General affairs, human resources, and labor; finance, accounting, and treasury; legal affairs, screening, and patents; distribution and inventory control; trade clerk and overseas clerk; clerk, secretary, and receptionist
Planning: Advertising and public relations; research studies and marketing; planning and product development; corporate planning
Sales: Sales (focus on new customer development); Sales (focus on existing customers); sales promotion and merchandising
Technologies and Research: Basic research; applied research and technology development; production and manufacturing technologies; quality, production management, and maintenance; architectural and civil engineering design, surveying, and cost management; construction management; machinery and electronic equipment design
Specialized: MR; pharmacist; medical technician and nurse; nutritionist; welfare worker, care worker, and home helper; nursery school teacher; lecturer and instructor; business consultant; IT consultant; specialized consultant; financial advisor; translator; interpreter; announcer
Sales and services: Sales staff and attendant; store manager; supervisor; buyer; esthetician
Finance: Exchange dealer and trader; loan and financial planner; security analyst; actuary
Creative: Editing and production; reporter and writer; designer; game creator
IT: Programmer; system engineer; network engineer; customer engineer; system maintenance and operation; system consultant; sales engineer; customer support
These occupations require contact with all employees, including executives. They support important decision-making for companies, such as developing corporate frameworks and recruitment, in order to enhance business efficiency and improve the workplace environment.
These occupations support various departments inside companies. General affairs personnel organize workplace environment, operate in- house events, and communicate various messages, etc. Human resources personnel support new employee recruitment, education, and other manpower-related operations. Labor personnel manage employee working conditions and arrange for items related to benefits and social insurance.
These occupations involve work related to money used in corporate activities. Finance and accounting personnel manage money that their company receives and spends each day and create documents to be submitted to in-house departments, shareholders, and related government offices. Treasury personnel conduct budget and account settlement operations, and in some cases, are responsible for implementing duties in accordance with corporate strategies.
Legal affairs personnel are in charge of legal clerical work in overall corporate activities. They also contact and consult with corporate lawyers. Screening personnel check the legality of various contracts arising during the execution of business. Patent personnel apply for and register new products and technologies, and file lawsuits when patents are violated.
Individuals in these occupations use information systems to comprehensively control processes ranging from placing orders and procuring materials to inventory control and product delivery.
Individuals in these occupations are in charge of customs procedures, making declarations, arranging for couriers and warehouses, and making and collecting payments in order to support the smooth import and export of goods.
Clerks are in charge of a broad range of work, including handling phone calls and entering data, as well as buying goods and performing general affairs work relating to benefits. Secretaries are required to perform work ranging from managing the schedule for their supervisor to taking care of their supervisor's daily affairs. Receptionists are in charge of attending to visitors and directing them to the relevant locations.
These occupations are required at all types of company. Individuals in these occupations plan and develop new products and devise sales strategies. You need to have the ability to collect, organize, and analyze information and grasp trends. You also need to be able to get things done in order to actualize ideas. Develop communication skills and the ability to propose ideas to be successful in this career path.
Advertising and public relation is about promoting the sale of products and services and enhancing corporate image, advertising and public relations personnel communicate financial results, corporate activities, and other company information to the world. The work is usually conducted with cooperation with advertising agencies.
These occupations involve the study of market trends. Individuals in these occupations use the results of their studies to develop sales strategies for products and services and to develop new products. In addition to products, they analyze advertisements, sales strategies, and distribution channels, etc., in a comprehensive manner.
These occupations involve understanding the needs of customers in order to create products that sell well. Individuals in these occupations repeatedly create prototypes and conduct monitor surveys to develop distribution channels and sales strategies. Collaboration with research divisions and production divisions is indispensable, because those are the organizations that actually commercialize products based on targets set for pricing, etc.
Corporate planning personnel utilize their expertise in corporate planning to support presidents, executives, and other members of top management. They have many opportunities to associate with management and are entrusted to make important decisions affecting the future of their company.
Individual sales representatives visit homes to introduce and sell company products, while corporate sales representatives visit companies to obtain contracts. New customer development involves visiting companies/individuals inside an assigned area.
These sales representatives target regular customers and client companies. It is fundamental for both individual and corporate sales representatives to establish trust with their customers. In addition, they are required to proactively gather information, etc., and make cutting- edge proposals, based on a relationship of trust.
Sales promotion personnel assist in setting goals for each division, office, or sales representative, developing tools and providing data. Merchandising personnel communicate product characteristics and other information to sales channels to provide ways to effectively sell products.
These occupations work on researching new technologies and creating products in collaboration with sales and production divisions, within set schedules. These occupations place importance on accurate and effective performance of work and specialized knowledge in product development and realization. Your attitude should be one that motivates you to deeply pursue what interests you. It is also useful to acquire qualifications and licenses to enhance your expertise. Successful employees understand research methods that are in accordance with demands through report writing and other work based on materials and data.
Basic research personnel develop new areas with the expectation of creating an advantage in the future. In many cases, they conduct joint research with universities and public institutions. In the medical supply field, joint research with overseas groups is also prominent. It is necessary to have foresight to see in which industry as the research will be very different.
Applied research personnel use the results of basic research to conduct research that will lead to specific technologies/products. Technology development personnel aim to establish technologies to effectively produce and provide company products and services.
Production and manufacturing technologies personnel are in charge of work ranging from planning and designing production lines, selecting individual equipment, and determining specifications, to installing and maintaining equipment. Within a team, they jointly conduct operations with a division of roles, such as electricity, machinery, and controls. Today, as production of multiple models has become mainstream, the role of manufacturing technology engineers is becoming more significant.
Quality personnel plan inspections and check the actual sites to prevent problems in the manufacturing process. Production management personnel control production in accordance with business plans and instructions from sales representatives. Maintenance personnel inspect and maintain production lines.
Architectural and civil engineering design can be largely divided into three categories: "housing" for individual homes and apartment buildings, "other architecture" for office buildings and large stores, and "civil" for parks, roads, and tunnels. Surveying involves determining the topography of sites. Cost management personnel calculate and manage budgets related to construction work.
Construction management personnel execute control over construction and civil engineering work, and act as field foremen. Their job content varies depending on the content of construction work and the scale of the project. They arrange for workers, control quality, and also manage schedules. In the case of large buildings or civil engineering work, they sometimes coordinate with subcontractors.
These occupations only exist in specific industries. They require advanced skills and specialized knowledge of individual fields. In many cases, one of the criteria for you to get a job is having specific qualifications or certification. To find work in these positions, it is recommended to acquire qualifications and licenses to enhance your expertise. As a way to train yourself to carefully listen to what others say, you should develop communication skills.
MR is an abbreviation for "medical representative." They represent pharmaceutical companies and communicate the efficacy and characteristics of the pharmaceuticals manufactured by their company to doctors and other medical staff.
Pharmacists dispense medications in accordance with prescriptions issued by doctors. Their job also has an aspect of the service industry because they give instructions and advice to patients and customers on how to take medicine, such as informing them about possible side effects and allergies. They also order pharmaceuticals and control their inventory.
There are several types of medical technician, including "medical technologists" who examine specimens, "clinical radiologists" who diagnose and treat patients using radiation, and "clinical engineers" who operate and maintain artificial organs. Nurses are in charge of health and hygiene management and treating the diseases of the elderly and other patients.
Nutritionists are in charge of improving and providing counseling regarding the diet of their patients or customers. Their duties include instructing cooking staff, managing hygiene at food service facilities, calculating calories, and creating menus. In addition, nationally certified senior nutritionists, a higher ranking of nutritionist, conduct nutritional counseling at special care facilities under license from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
Welfare workers provide consultation and care related to welfare, to those who have disabilities or difficulties in performing normal daily activities. Care workers assist the elderly and physically-challenged in developing independence, and give advice on how to provide care. Home helpers visit the homes of the elderly and physically-challenged to provide services.
Nursery school teachers substitute for parents in providing instructions on general daily living in accordance with the age of the children at nursery schools, preschools, etc. In recent years, the scope of their work has been expanding into day-care centers inside department stores, leisure facilities, and companies.
The job content of these occupations varies. For private tutors at school, for example, lecturers and instructors mainly work to improve the academic ability of their students and give advice on how to pass entrance exams for the schools each student wants to attend. In the case of providing education to working adults, lecturers and instructors can be responsible for teaching classes in a school setting. They can also visit companies to conduct employee training. There are also sports instructors who provide education at sports gyms.
Business consultants act as advisers to business managers and give advice on management issues from an objective standpoint. They also clarify issues and problems regarding businesses, human resources, and systems, to formulate improvement plans and to suggest procedures to execute such plans.
IT consultants are expected to provide consulting that is directly connected to management. Such consulting services include things such as acting as an advisor for the implementation of a new system at a computer manufacturer, drawing up tentative IT strategy plans, analyzing results, and establishing systems, and outsourcing their operation.
In recent years, as consulting areas have expanded, specialized consultants have emerged to provide advice and instructions on how to improve business operations meeting the needs of individual industries, such as finance, distribution, and medicine. Also, there are consultants who are involved with a specific operation at a company, such as sales, patents, or taxation business.
Financial advisors are consulted on and give advice on the management of the assets of individual customers (deposits and savings, insurance, securities, real estate, etc.), land use, inheritance issues, and other related general financial topics.
Translation jobs in Japan involve correctly converting original foreign text into Japanese using accurate expressions. Literary translation deals with novels, children's books, and other publications, and audio- visual translation involves providing subtitles for movies and TV dramas from overseas. Business translation is conducted in technical fields, such as IT and medicine, and in companies, for the translation of contracts, reports, etc.
Interpreters perform simultaneous or consecutive interpretation. Their job is to support communication between Japanese and foreign people. Simultaneous interpretation refers to providing interpretation at the same time as a speaker is talking, and consecutive interpretation refers to providing interpretation in batches. Business interpretation is used in inter-business transactions and other business operations, conference interpretation is used in international conferences, and broadcasting interpretation is used to provide interpretation for dual-language broadcasting on TV.
Announcers communicate information to many people. In addition to working in TV, they sometimes perform as radio personalities and MCs for events.
These occupations involve selling products and providing services at department stores, specialty stores, and mass retailers. Individuals in these occupations also understand consumer needs and promptly propose products, grasping overall trends to allow them to formulate sales strategies. The ability to build relationships of trust is important in jobs that involve selling products and services to individuals or companies. Successful employees accurately understand the demands of the other party and how to propose solutions or plans. They listen carefully listen to what others say and to build networks.
Sales staff and attendants attend to customers at department stores, supermarkets, mass retailers, and individual specialty stores. They introduce products according to the customer's taste. They also devise ways to encourage customers to visit their stores by preparing direct marketing, flyers, and product lineups suited to their customer base.
Store managers comprehensively oversee the operations of stores, including store organization, human resources, inventories, and sales management. While educating and instructing part-time workers and sales staff, they are also required to find ways to increase profitability.
Supervisors work with businesses such as supermarkets, mass retailers, convenience stores, restaurants, and fast food restaurants, managing multiple locations. They monitor store operation from the aspects of sales and management, and if necessary, they provide instruction.
Buyers analyze trends and the preferences of consumers to procure products and raw materials to be placed on store shelves. They search out and create goods in accordance with their company concept or goods having characteristics that will allow them to differentiate themselves from competitors.
Estheticians listen to how their customers want to look, and their worries, and give advice on how to maintain beauty. They also perform body care, nail care, and slimming treatments. In addition to being in charge of technical aspects and attending to customers, they are also entrusted with salon management depending on how long they have been in the business.
These occupations are only available in the finance industry. Individuals in these occupations utilize their advanced special knowledge of economics trends, stock markets, and financial products in order to operate funds and the capital of individuals and corporate customers. Successful professionals acquire the ability to collect, organize, and analyze information through your participation in team seminar or group activities. You should also acquire the ability to quickly grasp information and to understand the meaning of new movements.
Exchange dealers buy and sell Japanese yen and foreign currencies on behalf of their customers to produce marginal profits in exchange rates. Traders understand the trends of bonds and stock prices and provide related information to customers. Their job is to receive orders from customers to buy or sell, then transmit those orders to dealers.
As specialists in fund management, loan and financial planners earn profits based from funds that are entrusted to them. Loan planners bankroll their company funds at financial institutions, such as banks. Financial planners invest assets in securities and bonds to earn a margin.
Security analysts analyze the future of industries or individual companies and stock price trends based on their wide range of knowledge of economics, industries, and the world. Some security analysts flourish on their own while others work at insurance companies or in the asset management divisions of ordinary companies.
This refers to insurance actuaries. Individuals in this occupation utilize a high level of statistical expertise to provide mathematical support to allow insurance companies to maintain sound management while setting adequate premiums and insurance payments for each insurance subscriber.
These occupations are involved with artistic works or product creation. Communication skills are required to explain ideas to customers. Some individuals in these occupations flourish on their own while others work in the production divisions of ordinary companies or production companies.
*What you should do while in school: These occupations involve showing the appeal of plans, products, and services to a wide range of the general public. You should acquire skills in planning, and in presenting your ideas in an understandable manner. You should also acquire communication skills and Japanese language skills to allow you to communicate messages. It is advisable to experience working part time in mass media, and producing student newspapers and informational magazines.
Editing and production personnel create print media, such as magazines and books, and Web content, etc. They multitask to conduct a variety of work, including making plans, arranging for staff, making appointments for on-site reporting, and coordinating plans with sales representatives.
Newspaper reporters are employed by newspaper companies. Their job is to learn how to conduct on-site reporting and write newspaper articles. Writers have their own specialized fields, such as music and business, and write text to be printed in magazines, books, and advertisements.
Graphic designers are involved with pinted materials. Some graphic designers specialize in advertisements and others specialize in publications. In addition, there are Web designers who are engaged in Web production, fashion designers in the apparel field, and interior designers in the construction field.
Game production involves scenario writers who come up with stories, designers who create characters, programmers who establish a system, music personnel, and directors/producers who control the entire project. The title "game creator" is a general term for these occupations.
With the development and spread of information and communication technologies, there is an increased demand for computer system engineers at computer companies and other companies.
These occupations require a deep understanding of IT technologies and computer network systems, as well as specialized tech skills. You should acquire the ability to propose the optimum solutions and plans for the client and to accurately manage operations based on specific procedures.
Programmers follow specifications to create computer programs. Their job includes creating flow charts to determine process procedures, coding for entering programs, and confirming operations.
System engineers grasp the goals and demands of customers and design systems accordingly. This occupation requires the ability to listen to others, propose ideas, and otherwise communicate.
Network engineers develop systems that are specialized for networks within computer systems. Currently, the utilization of networks between locations inside and outside companies, and between companies and consumers, is a significant theme for corporate strategy. Accordingly, network engineers are receiving particular attention among IT occupations.
Customer engineers lecture on how to operate systems and hardware so that customers can effectively use computer systems. They also perform regular inspections and respond to problems.
System maintenance personnel regularly inspect computer systems, and adjust systems in accordance with the replacement of computers or peripheral devices. System operation personnel are system operators.
System consultants provide expert advice and planning when companies implement computerized business systems. They meet with customers to clarify the demands and issues, and propose appropriate solutions.
Sales engineers accompany sales representatives or visit customers on their own and explain the technical aspects of company products and systems. They assist in securing contracts. Sales engineers are a type of sales representative, but at the same time are expected to conduct activities focused on obtaining the trust of customers.
Customer support personnel respond to inquiries from users regarding company products and services. The content of the support varies according to the industry.
Source: Job Hunting Guide for International Students | JASSO
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